Help & Facts for ADHD
16th October 2023
This page has been edited and reviewed by psychologist R. Y. Langham, M.M.F.T., PhD
· Who is affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
· Is medication always necessary?
· What causes ADHD?
· Can ADHD be prevented?
· What natural treatments can help children and/or adults overcome or manage ADHD?
Who is Affected with ADHD?
According to the Center of Disease Control (CDC) (2014), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioral disorder commonly found in children. Although ADHD is known as a disorder that primarily affects children, it can also occur in adults, and adult ADHD has received much publicity over the past decade.
ADHD is more common in boys than girls. Approximately 6-8% of children (around 2.5 million children) in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD. In addition, the ADHD diagnosis is not limited to the U.S.; children from other countries are diagnosed with ADHD, and in fact, the prevalence of ADHD in many developed and developing countries is similar to the prevalence in the United States.
Many mental health professionals are opposed to the use of psychiatric labeling during the diagnosis. Child psychiatrist Dr. Scott Shannon, who treats ADHD in children, states that he often has better success avoiding labeling. He focuses instead on remedying the issues and symptoms of the child.
Shannon states that sometimes the issues that contribute to the symptoms of ADHD are social in nature rather than purely physical, and that by working with the family, he is able to resolve some of the factors that contribute to the child’s symptoms. This is not to say that the cause of ADHD in all children is the result of social issues, but that in a subset of those who end up being diagnosed with ADHD, this is the case.
Many mental health professionals are opposed to the use of psychiatric labeling during the diagnosis. Child psychiatrist Dr. Scott Shannon, who treats ADHD in children, states that he often has better success avoiding labeling the child, focusing on remedying the issues and symptoms the child.
Shannon states that sometimes the issues that contribute to the symptoms of ADHD are social in nature, rather than purely physical, and that by working with the family, he is able to resolve some of the factors that contribute to the child’s symptoms. This is not to say that the cause of ADHD in all children is the result of social issues, but that in a subset of those who end up being diagnosed with ADHD, this is the case.
Further, many ADHD symptoms can be reduced or eliminated through lifestyle changes such as: a healthy diet, exercise, giving children one-on-one attention, and effective coping techniques.
Three types of ADHD that have been categorized are:
· ADHD with impulsivity
· ADHD without impulsivity
· Combined type
Note that ADHD can exist with or without impulsivity. ADHD without impulsivity is ADHD-IA, or the inattentive type (Nigg. 2006).
Many of the symptoms of ADHD are very similar to what is labelled bipolar disorder symptoms. So parents and educators should understand that psychiatric labeling, in which child or adult is labeled with a mental health disorder, is often a subjective rather than scientific process. In other words, it is based on the opinion or "hunch" of the treating physician. In this context, then, a tendency to over-diagnose a disorder in children leads to medicating those who would do better with less invasive treatment.
The practice of basing a medical diagnosis based on subjective speculation is especially common in the field of psychiatry, more so than in any other branch of medicine. Parents and educators should be aware that professional opinions vary when it comes to ADHD diagnosis and treatments.
A similar situation is apparent in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of bipolar disorder. According to a study led by Dr. Mark Zimmerman, an associate professor of psychiatry and researcher at Rhode Island University, bipolar disorder is often overdiagnosed at the rate of more than 50%; that is, more than 50% of bipolar disorder diagnoses do not meet the criteria for bipolar disorder when a scientific evaluation is used rather than standard diagnosis, which is often subjective.
Sociodynamics & ADHD
Children who grow up in single-parent homes and fall in the lower economic brackets are more likely to be labeled with a mental health disorder and prescribed medications than those who grow up in two-parent homes and fall in the middle-to-upper economic brackets. Why is that? Social factors affect the psychology of a child. A divorce or death leads to the absence of a parent, which can be very traumatic for a child. An absent parent can also create a void when it comes to childcare and parenting responsibilities.
In single-parent homes, the parent is often the sole provider, and therefore might not have the time or energy to care for the child's emotional needs or to personally supervise his or her care. In many single-parent, low-income families, the one parent may have to work two or more jobs just to make ends meet.
If the parent is not careful, he or she may end up with a babysitter who uses television as a babysitting tool, which may further aggravate the child's inattention and/or behavioral problems. The single parent takes on the role of both mom and dad in addition to working long hours just to pay the bills. The pressure not only leaves the single parent with less energy, it may also make it more difficult to be active, attentive, and hands-on.
Unfavorable sociodynamics can cause a child to be inattentive, unstable, or disruptive in the classroom. Some children may misbehave because they have been conditioned to behave in that manner. In other words, many "bad" behaviors are "learned behaviors." These children learn early that if they behave in a certain manner, it will help them get the attention (i.e. good or bad) that they crave.
One public school child asserted that he misbehaved in the classroom in order to get attention. He was fatherless and his mother was "out of the picture," and was raised by grandparents whose energy was limited. He would rather "get in trouble" at home and in school than be ignored, dismissed, or overlooked, and did whatever he could to get the attention that he desired. Often, children such as this end up on psychiatric drugs, when in reality, the real problem is in unfulfilled emotional needs.
One must remember that most, if not all, single parents face a variety of challenges. For instance, a school counselor, psychologist, teacher, and/or nurse may try to pressure a single parent to give his or her child psychiatric medications. This pressure from the medical and educational systems to conform can increase the burden a single parent already feels, thus worsening the problem instead of alleviating it.
Also note that parents who fall in the middle and upper income brackets may be more educated and tend to be more assertive; they 'fight for the rights' of their child, request a second opinion, and are more apt to disagree with the school administration. Less educated parents and immigrants (those who speak little-to-no English), especially illegal immigrants, may be more compliant, and more likely to accept diagnoses and treatments subserviently.
Single mothers may also more likely accept the guidance or direction of authority figures such as doctors, lawyers, mental health professionals, nurses, and school administration than mothers who are married to their children's father. This may account, in part, for the higher percentages of children from single-parent families who take prescribed medications for ADHD.
And yes, well-educated individuals or upper-income parents who have health insurance, more accessible medical services, those who are content with status quo treatment, or who are already accustomed to relying on psychiatric drugs, drug treatment of ADHD as a first-line treatment in their difficult child may also come as a matter of course. ADHD diagnosis and treatment is not limited to any social strata, but simply has a higher rate in single-parent homes.
ADHD & Diet
Adjusting a child's lifestyle (i.e. improving his or her diet and incorporating exercise into his or her daily routine) can help reduce symptoms of ADHD. A CHADD representative in a telephone interview with the AYCNP quoted sources that indicate at least a 5% correlation between diet and ADHD symptoms, noting that diet does not "cause" ADHD, but can be a contributing factor and aggravate symptoms.
Good nutrition (i.e. reducing sugar intake), along with regular outdoor activities, can serve to reduce symptoms of ADHD. Appropriate prenatal care for pregnant women as well as nursing of babies are preventive measures for future ADHD diagnosis, and can result in improved concentration for the infant or child, at home and later in school. Pregnant women should visit an obstetrician on a regular basis. Furthermore, alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs (if possible) should be avoided during pregnancy.
High-sugar breakfasts are common in school, but they can be detrimental for children with ADHD and may contribute to inattention. Large amounts of sugar can actually increase ADHD symptoms.
For instance, a child in a Newark, NJ public school stated that her daily school breakfast often consists of Pop-Tarts and apple juice. The little girl stated that every morning, after eating breakfast, she felt dizzy and hyper. Why? Such sugary breakfasts like Pop-Tarts, Frosted Flakes, Fruit Loops, and muffins with their high sugar content are common staples in public school breakfasts; they contain copious amounts of sugar, which is a "no-no" for children with ADHD. Commendably, some individual schools and some school systems are making efforts to improve the quality of breakfasts served to grade school children.
Sugary breakfast can affect a child’s concentration and focus and increase hyperactivity, regardless of whether the child has ADHD or not. High sugar and fat breakfasts can also negatively affect a child's long-term health and increase his or her risk of diabetes. Proper nutrition, by contrast, can positively affect a child’s mood, increase his or her attention span, and decrease his or her impulsivity.
A diet for ADHD that is low in refined sugar and refined carbohydrates (McNuff. 2005), with attention to balanced nutrition, and especially for children, three nutritious meals a day (so many girls skip breakfast and sometimes breakfast and lunch), along with healthy snacks, can help children and teens have more mental strength and focus.
ADHD & Media: Television, Video Games & Movies
There appears to be a connection between ADHD symptoms and the media (i.e. television, video games and movies). A 1994 study indicated that for every additional hour that young children watched television, the likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD increased by 18% (Christakis, Zimmerman,DiGiuseppe & McCarty, 2004).
Children's minds can become over-stimulated after watching television, playing stimulating, aggressive or violent video games and/or watching action, violent or horror movies for many hours. Some children are also exposed to pornography or soft porn on a regular basis.
Some teachers have observed children as young as 5 and 6 years old act out pornographic or violent scenes from television shows and movies. Violent, sexual, and aggressive television and movies can contribute to hyperactivity, or in some children, inattentiveness. In addition, these types of programming can trigger or worsen mental illnesses in some children. Not all children who are exposed to violence and sex in the media have obvious psychological detriment. However, it can be one factor for children—along with other possible factors (including genetic predisposition)—that contributes to ADHD symptoms. For some kids, overexposure to the media can be the factor that most contributes to symptoms of ADHD.
Children and teens who have unlimited access to unsupervised Internet and television, may be over-stimulating by music videos, concerts, and/or sexual imagery from these on a regular basis. These can also contribute to children becoming destabilized and to exhibit symptoms associated with ADHD and/or other mental health disorders. The media can also contribute to mental over-stimulation, especially in females, who have a tendency to internalize the images they see, and contribute to a corresponding low which manifests itself in depression, or in the symptoms of ADHD-IA (inattentive type).
Boys, on the other hand, tend to develop an inability to focus, impulsivity, and symptoms typically associated with ADHD, including hyperactivity. Some children play video games two to six hours a day. Reducing the child’s media time can help reduce his or her ADHD symptoms. A good way to reduce these symptoms is to replace the child's television time with more positive recreational activities such as outdoor activities, art, or hands-on music in the form of music lessons.
Medical professionals encourage limiting a child’s total media exposure to one hour a day for grade school age children, and a maximum two hours a day for older children; infants from two years of age or under should not be exposed to television at all, according to guidelines provided by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
It is noteworthy that children who have been sexually abused are often misdiagnosed with ADHD (Olfman, 2008). When undesirable behaviors are due to child abuse, medications are not appropriate treatments. Therapy and a loving support system are the best treatments for children who have been abused and/or neglected.
Children & Media Violence
Violence affects children's mental health. Many children have regular access to violent television and movies. Studies have shown that violent and scary movies can negatively affect children’s emotional and social development. It can also lead to impulsivity and inattention at school. Parents need to be aware of these possible effects so that they can better monitor and direct what their children watch on television.
Misdiagnoses & Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders have also been mistaken for ADHD. The symptoms misdiagnosed as ADHD are diminished when issues affecting sleep are addressed correctly.
Most children suffering with sleep disorders or insomnia can be helped without the use of medication. Stimulant medication, used in treating ADHD, can contribute to sleep disorders. Some medical model oriented psychiatrists counteract the tendency of stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), by prescribing tranquilizing drugs to help the child sleep at night. One can easily see how this might create a potential chemical-biological hazard with reliance on stimulants by day and tranquilizing drugs at night, especially for a child or teen.
Parents, take the television, computer, and video game console out of a child or teen’s bedroom. This can reduce or alleviate many ADHD symptoms, especially those due to loss of sleep. Do not allow children with ADHD to consume sugary beverages (or eat heavy meals) shortly before bed. Also make sure your children stay away from caffeine-laden drinks such as soda, coffee, chocolate, and tea at least two hours before bedtime. Moreover, cut off access to stimulating television or movies at least two hours before bedtime.
Run a relaxing bath for your children at night, encourage them to exercise daily, provide time at the park for them, or read to your young child before they go to bed. Teens can also be encouraged to read before they go to bed rather than watch television, surf the Internet, play video games, or listen to music.
A child needs to feel safe and secure. He or she must also have privacy in order to sleep soundly. By creating a safe, secure, clean, orderly, and quiet haven for the child, his or her ability to sleep at night will improve, and this can help reduce ADHD symptoms.
Music, ADHD & Mental Health
For many teenagers and a large percentage of children, music is a very powerful influence. Balancing the amount of time a child spends listening to music and positively influencing the type of music he or she listens to can help reduce or alleviate ADHD symptoms in some children and teens.
One children who received various psychiatric diagnoses during different time periods, was a fatherless girl with an unstable mother. She did not live with her parents and listened to hours upon hours of music on her iPod and on the Internet watching videos, sometimes late into the night.
The music she listened to was intense, often emotional pop, rock, and hip-hop. It was observed that the hours of listening to music and watching music videos alone on the Internet made her feel anxious, agitated, and unfocused. symptoms can be interpreted many different ways by mental health professionals who are not in-tune with how the media or social isolation and neglect can affect a child.
Media-induced social isolation contributed to this patient's experience, combined with over-stimulation through the media, contributing to social regression and mental health issues (Samuels, J. 2009). This is not an isolated case, but children and teens who spend an inordinate amount of time listening to music have a greater propensity towards mental health disorders such as depression, which is often comorbid with ADHD in children and teens. See Music and Major Depression in Children.
Did the 4 or 5 hours of intense music at home and in school during breaks and recess contribute to this child’s problems with inattention? Quiet possibly! There are a variety of psychological techniques and non-medical treatments for children and teens with ADHD.
Mentoring, tutoring, art, as well as some restrictions on time spent listening to music, have a positive effect on symptoms of ADHD.
ADHD Treatments, Positive Therapy & Practical Suggestions
From David Rabiner, Ph.D., Duke University, research scientist and ADHD expert: - Regarding medication, “not all children benefit from taking it; some experience intolerable side effects, and many continue to struggle even when medication provides some benefit. Behavior therapy can be difficult for parents and teachers to consistently implement, and although it often helps, it does not eliminate a child's behavioral problems. Furthermore, neither treatment yields positive changes that persist once the treatment is discontinued. Finally, despite numerous studies documenting the short-and intermediate-term benefits of these treatments, evidence of their impact on children's long-term success is less evident."
ADHD Treatments & Working-Memory Training
"One relatively recent development in the realm of ADHD treatments is working-memory training. Working memory (WM) refers to the ability to hold and manipulate information in the mind for subsequent use, and is critically important for a variety of learning activities. For example, when a child is asked questions about a story he has read, working memory allows the child to retain and review the story information in mind to answer the questions. In doing mental math, working memory is used to hold the digits in mind and manipulate them, e.g., add or subtract, to generate the answer." (David Rabiner, Ph.D: Attention Research Update)
Dr. Rabiner provides an unbiased analysis of ADHD treatments in the Attention Research Update. He neither supports nor negates the use of medication to treat ADHD. Rather, Dr. Rabiner analyzes various treatment options in light of available scientific evidence and the newest clinical studies on the effects of ADHD. His newsletter, Attention Research Update, is insightful and recommended.
Comparing Drug and Natural ADHD Treatments
The most common treatment for ADHD is medication in the form of stimulant drugs. Drug treatment for ADHD began to gain momentum in the 1970s. Prior to this, the use of medication to treat ADHD was much less common. According to current statistics, up to 10% of children take psychotropic or psychiatric medications for ADHD (Nigg, 2006). Clinical psychologist Susan Ashley reports that up to 80% of children who are diagnosed with ADHD will, at some point, take stimulant drugs for the condition.
However, parents should consider many other non-drug interventions that can effectively help reduce, alleviate, or eliminate ADHD symptoms. Do consider that not everyone agrees with psychiatric labeling. Why? Because it automatically classifies children as having ADHD when there are different ways of interpreting symptoms, especially in children and teens. (Eide & Eide 2006).
According David Rabiner, Ph.D., researcher from Duke University, approximately 90% of children who go on drug treatment for ADHD will experience serious side effects. These side effects may gradually dissipate, but approximately 50% of those diagnosed with ADHD will still experience adverse consequences six months after starting drug treatments, with 10% still experiencing serious side effects two years after starting drug treatment.
Dr. Rabiner concludes that medications only temporarily alleviate or reduce ADHD symptoms. In fact, for most, these medications are rendered ineffective after two years.
Additionally, Dr. Rabiner notes that one clinical study indicates that a significant percentage of children will experience personality changes (i.e. hostility, aggression, and pronounced difficulty with interpersonal relationships) partly as a result of taking stimulant medications.
Positive Non-Pharmaceutical Ways To Effectively Manage ADHD
William Pelham, Jr., Ph.D. and Gregory Fabiano, Ph.D. of the State University of New York at Buffalo recommend two psycho-social treatments:
Recent studies indicate that "behavioral modification" therapy as an effective intervention for children with ADHD has the same or better rate both in the short-term and especially in the long-term as drug therapy. For those who continue to use stimulant drugs for ADHD treatment in children or teens, behavioral modification therapy can result in a lower dosage requirement of the medication.
Pelham and Fabiano state that behavioral parent training and behavioral classroom management are "well established" for treating ADHD in children and adolescents.
Pelham & Fabiano recommend the Summer Treatment Program (STP) for children with ADHD. This camp provides children with more hours of attention than typical psychotherapy, and also helps children gain skills in positive peer relationships. Parents can consider other similar therapeutic summer camps for their children who have been diagnosed with ADHD.
It is compelling that these treatment options do not necessitate the use of medication.
See: NIMH Website (Journal Highlights Effectiveness of Research Based Psychotherapies for Youth. April 15, 2008).
Positive Attitude & Positive Teaching Methods
Ideas for the Classroom for children with ADHD symptoms and those with behavioral problems at school:
· Children are most often first diagnosed with ADHD at school
· Boys with ADHD outnumber girls, 2 to 1
· Up to 10% of children are diagnosed with ADHD (Nigg. 2006)
Children with ADHD need positive, interactive classroom instruction. A teacher’s teaching style can make a difference for children with ADHD. These children need attentive teachers, preferably, in smaller classroom settings. Moreover, children with ADHD often need one-on-one assistance (Rief). According to Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) (2006), a recent study found that certain learning approaches directly affect the academic success of college students with ADHD and/or other Learning Disabilities (LD).
Students who demonstrate positive "explanatory skills" tend to interpret visual images and print materials in a positive way. They tend to earn higher grades than those with negative attitudes and/or incorrect interpretations. When a student adopts a positive attitude (i.e. "I can fix this problem if I keep trying"), he or she is much more likely to learn and achieve academic success than a person who adopts a negative or pessimistic attitude (i.e. "I will never pass this test no matter how much I study").
Parents must encourage a positive attitude at home. For instance, a parent should say to his or her child, "You can succeed. You can finish. You can overcome this."
When a parent or teacher tells a child on a daily basis that he or she will never amount to anything or that he or she is bad or wrong, that child starts to believe that there is something intrinsically wrong with him or her. He or she adopts a negative self-fulfilling prophecy. The child begins to believe that what the parent or teacher says is true, which leads to him or her reacting as the teacher predicted.
A child, teenager, or even adult with ADHD needs someone to believe in him or her. These individuals need someone who focuses on their positive traits, helps them develop self-esteem, and builds a positive self-image.
Arts Therapy: Art & Self-Esteem
Art is an effective ADHD therapy for children, teens and adults. Art requires concentration and helps exercise or strengthen the mind (as opposed to the rapid-fire imagery of television, action movies, cartoons, superheroes, and television commercials.)
How Art Helps Reduce ADHD Symptoms
Dr. Barroqueiro explains that the only time she really feels comfortable is when she is in her art room. She further asserts that art helps reduce ADHD symptoms. For more information, read the article in its entirety here: The Art of Embracing ADHD by Dr. Daniella Barroqueiro.
A young girl diagnosed with ADHD reported that learning to play the piano helped repair her damaged self-esteem. The girl's mother stated that she needed to improve her parenting skills; by accepting her daughter as she is and giving her unconditional approval and love, her daughter developed a more positive self-image (Timmes, 2005). The mother needed to work hard at keeping such a positive attitude towards her daughter diagnosed with ADHD.
Studies indicate that spending time outdoors (i.e. "Green Therapy") and regular exercise can greatly reduce ADHD symptoms in children and teens.
"Green Therapy" for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Kuo, F. E. & Taylor, A. F. (2004). A Potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health.
Frances E. Kuo, Ph.D., Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences and the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Andrea Faber Taylor, Ph.D., Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences at the University of Illinois: Urbana-Champaign, studied the effects of "green" or "natural settings" in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, across diverse sub-populations of children.
Methods: Parents nationwide rated how effective 49 common indoor after-school and weekend activities were on reducing or eliminating ADHD symptoms. The results were then compared to "green activities" (i.e. outdoor settings).
Results: The results indicated that "green outdoor activities" significantly reduced ADHD symptoms far more than indoor after-school and weekend activities. These findings were consistent across all ages, genders, income groups, community types, geographic regions, and diagnoses.
Conclusions: "Green outdoor settings" appear to reduce ADHD symptoms in children across a wide range of individual, residential, and case characteristics.
For An All-Natural ADHD Treatment: Prescribe Green
Support for Parents
Parental training is of value for many parents.
Parenting a child with ADHD. National Resource Center on ADHD
Tutoring, Coaching & Mentoring
A reading coach who has worked with hundreds of students with learning disabilities and ADHD found that even children with the most severe ADHD symptoms have benefited from the support of professionals and dedicated parents. With the love and support of those around them, these children have successfully graduated from high school and college (Personal communication with J. McNuff, reading coach, Paterson, NJ, 2005).
Clinical Study - Why is ADHD overdiagnosed?
Coaching, Tutoring & Therapy:
Tutoring, coaching, and attending professional therapy sessions can help children with ADHD. These support services negate the need for medications. A professional ADHD coach/tutor can help children to cope with, reduce or alleviate many ADHD symptoms.
If you interested in learning more about coaching programs, contact your local library or contact one of the organizations listed below:
ADD Coach Academy
ADHD Coaches Organization
Institute for Advancement of AD/HD Coaching - IAAC
International Coach Federation - ICF
Nurtured Heart Approach Coaches List
Pathways to Success - AD/HD and LIFE COACHING
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – Child & Adult References:
1. Alert for healthcare professionals: Pemoline tablets and chewable tables (Marketed as Cylert). (2005). FDA Alert: Liver Injury Risk and Market Withdrawal. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
2. Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L. & McCarty, C. A. (2004). Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children. Pediatrics, 113 (4). 708-713.
3. Eide, B., Eide, F. (2006). The Mislabeled Child. New York: Hyperion.
4. Effectiveness of research based psychotherapies for youth. (2008). Science Update.
5. FDA issues public health advisory on Strattera (Atmoxetine) for attention deficit disorder. (2005). FDA Strattera alert. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
6. Gardener, A. (2005). Ritalin and cancer. Health Day Reporter.
7. Kuo, F. E. & Taylor, A. F. (2004). A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 94(9). 1580-1586.
8. Monastra, V. J. (2005). Overcoming the barriers to effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A neuro-educational approach. Science Direct.
9. Nigg, J. (2006). What causes ADHD? New York: Guilford.
10. Ratey, J. (2006). An update on medications used in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA).
11. Rief, Sandra, F. (1993). How to Reach and Teach ADD/ADHD Children. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
12. Rabiner, D. (2006). Medication treatment for ADHD. Attention Research Update.
13. Rabiner, D. (2006). Interview: Sharper brains.
14. Rabiner, D. (2012). Encouraging new findings for working memory training. Attention Research Update.
15. Richardson, W. (2005). ADHD and stimulant medication abuse. Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA).
16. Ritalin and Depression. (2007). MedTV. Retrieved from the Internet 2012.
17. Ritalin exposure may have long-term effects. (2004). Mental Health Weekly. Wiley Periodicals Inc.
18. Samuels, J. (2005-2015). Personal, educational, and psychological notes. AYCNP. http://aycnp.org/about_aycnp.php 19. Vastag, B. (n.d.). Pay attention: Ritalin acts much like cocaine. Journal of the American Medical Association.
Excellent scientific information on ADHD can be found here:
Attention Research Update David Rabiner, Ph.D., Clinical Psychology, Duke University, NC.
ADHD & Art - How art helps children and adults with ADHD
ADHD Research - Peer Rejection, Social Relationships, Hostility and ADHD Methylphenidate (Ritalin).