Neuriva Review: Is It Right For You?

Neuriva Reviewed

27th November 2023

Neuriva From Schiff Vitamins

In this Neuriva review, we delve into the intricate world of nootropic supplements, focusing on  a brain and memory enhancer from Schiff Vitamins, a subsidiary of the renowned Reckitt. Known for its health-centric supplement portfolio, Neuriva stands out with its promise to bolster cognitive functions. Our in-depth analysis will put these claims to the test, scrutinizing the product's chosen ingredients, like Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg) and Phosphatidylserine (100mg), and their respective dosages.

While Schiff Vitamins, under Reckitt's umbrella, brings a legacy of health-focused solutions, questions linger about Neuriva's efficacy and the company's transparency. We aim to shed light on these concerns, offering a balanced perspective on the product's potential benefits and limitations. Additionally, we'll explore alternative nootropics, providing a comprehensive view for those contemplating cognitive enhancement supplements.

Overall Results And Recommendation


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Neuriva Reviews
  • Underwhelming Results: Neuriva provided only very modest improvements in focus and memory, falling short of the significant cognitive enhancements delivered by more comprehensively formulated nootropic supplements.
  • Brand Reputation Concerns: False advertising claims resulted in an $8m class action settlement against the manufacturer of Neuriva.
  • Inconsistent Results: Our experience with Neuriva showed varied and inconsistent cognitive benefits across different users, lacking the reliability expected in a nootropic.
  • Limited Ingredient Profile: Neuriva's formula misses many clinically proven ingredients that are essential for comprehensive cognitive enhancement.
  • Our Recommendation: Based on our testing, we recommend NooCube as a superior alternative, our current top recommended nootropic. It's comprehensively formulated, trusted, and uses scientifically backed ingredients. We found it delivered robust cognitive improvements to focus, mental performance and memory during our test period.

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Quick Decision Guide - Neuriva vs Leading Nootropic (NooCube)

CRITERIA

Neuriva

Neuriva Reviews

NooCube

Neuriva Testing

Overall Rating (From Our Experience Using Each Product)

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Main Benefits

Positioned as nootropic to boost focus and memory

Comprehensive cognitive improvement with a multi-ingredient blend

Scientific Backing

Low, cited studies have been discredited

Strong, with many well-researched ingredients

Formula Complexity

Basic

Comprehensive

Brand Reputation Concerns

High, $8m class action over false advertising claims

Minimal to none

Cost

Premium

Premium

Commitment Time for Results

Weeks to months

Weeks, consistent use recommended

Servings Per Container

30

30

Capsules Per Container

30

90

User Feedback

Some mixed reviews

Predominantly positive

Ingredients' Transparency

Fully disclosed

Fully disclosed

Dosage Convenience

1 capsule daily

3 capsules daily

Potential Side Effects

Moderate risk

Low risk

Customer Support & Return Policy

No money back guarantee

Excellent, 60 day money-back guarantee

Product Availability

Widely available

Available through official site only

Additional Benefits

None specific

Boosts neurotransmitters, enhanced neuroprotection

Neuriva: Nootropic Claims in Review


Neuriva, a product of Schiff Vitamins, positions itself as a nootropic supplement, aiming to enhance brain function and memory. However, a critical examination reveals that the brand's lofty claims may not be as firmly grounded in scientific evidence as consumers might expect.

  1. Focus Enhancement: Neuriva purports to "help you focus in." While focus is crucial for cognitive performance, the specifics of how Neuriva facilitates this remain ambiguous, especially given the limited research on its key ingredients, like Coffee Fruit Extract and Phosphatidylserine [1,2].
  2. Distraction Filtering: The claim that it "helps you filter out distractions" suggests a heightened ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. However, the connection between its ingredients and such specific cognitive processes is not clearly established in neuroscientific literature [3,4].
  3. Reactivity Improvement: Neuriva's assertion of "helping you react with greater speed and precision" is another bold claim. Reaction times are influenced by a myriad of factors, and the direct impact of Neuriva's components on such a specific aspect of cognition is not conclusively supported by existing studies [5].
  4. Memory Recall: The promise to "help you record and recall stored information" implies a significant boost in memory functions. While memory enhancement is a common goal of nootropics, the efficacy of Neuriva in this regard lacks robust, peer-reviewed evidence [6].
  5. Retention of New Information: Similarly, the ability to "help you retain new information" is a claim that requires more rigorous scientific validation, especially considering the complexities of how our brain encodes and retains new data [7].
  6. Sustained Concentration: Lastly, the assertion that it "helps you keep concentrating on tasks for longer" touches on the issue of sustained attention. However, the specific effect of Neuriva's ingredients on prolonged focus is not comprehensively demonstrated in clinical research [8].

While these claims are compelling, their scientific backing appears to be less concrete. Neuriva's claims, centered around improving cognitive functions, are based primarily on its two active ingredients: Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg) and Phosphatidylserine (100mg). A scientific assessment of these claims requires an examination of the existing academic research on these ingredients:

  1. "Helps you focus in":
    • Coffee Fruit Extract: Some studies suggest that compounds in coffee fruit may have neuroprotective effects and could potentially enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are important for brain health. However, the specific impact on focus, particularly at the 100mg dosage, is not clearly established in the literature [9[.
    • Phosphatidylserine: This compound is known to play a key role in cell membrane integrity and might aid in cognitive processes. But evidence directly linking phosphatidylserine to improved focus is limited, especially at a 100mg dose [10].
  2. "Helps you filter out distractions":
    • The scientific backing for this claim, particularly in the context of the ingredients and dosages used in Neuriva, is not robust. Current research does not provide strong support for the idea that either Coffee Fruit Extract or Phosphatidylserine at these doses significantly improves the ability to filter distractions [11].
  3. "Helps you react with greater speed and precision":
    • While certain nootropics are known to enhance cognitive speed and accuracy, the evidence for Neuriva's ingredients doing so is not strong. The dosage of the ingredients is a critical factor, and the effectiveness of the 100mg dosage in enhancing reaction times is not well-documented [12].
  4. "Helps you record and recall stored information":
    • Studies on memory recall and cognitive enhancers do not provide conclusive evidence that Neuriva's ingredients at the specified dosages significantly enhance this aspect of cognition [13].
  5. "Helps you retain new information":
    • Retention of new information is a complex process, and while certain supplements have shown potential, the specific effects of Neuriva's formulation at the given dosages are not strongly supported by current research [14].
  6. "Helps you keep concentrating on tasks for longer":
    • Sustained attention is influenced by various factors, including overall brain health. While the ingredients in Neuriva might contribute to brain health, the direct correlation with prolonged concentration, particularly at these dosages, lacks substantial scientific backing [15].

A critical issue with Neuriva is its proprietary blend, which makes it challenging to assess the true efficacy of each component. The dosage of each ingredient is crucial in determining its effectiveness, and the dosages used in Neuriva may not align with those studied in scientific research. This discrepancy raises questions about the validity of its claims.

Does Neuriva Work?

Our Neuriva Experience: An In-depth Analysis

Our journey with Neuriva, a supplement that ambitiously promises to revolutionize brain function and memory, was characterized by expectations and real-world experiences that, unfortunately, didn't align. The formulation, relying on Coffee Fruit Extract and Phosphatidylserine, each at a 100mg dosage, set a hopeful premise but delivered an experience that was more muted than transformative when compared to top-tier brain and memory supplements we've tested.

  1. Focus In: Neuriva claims to assist in honing focus. While we anticipated a noticeable sharpening of attention, the reality was subtler. The Coffee Fruit Extract, though theoretically supportive of brain health, didn't manifest in the kind of focused tunnel vision we've experienced with other supplements. This was a recurring theme in our trial, where moments of enhanced focus were fleeting and not as pronounced as one might expect [16].
  2. Filter Out Distractions: Distraction filtering is a bold claim, and our experience with Neuriva didn't quite live up to it. In our high-stimulus environments, we found the supplement's impact on our ability to ignore extraneous information to be minimal. The Phosphatidylserine, despite its potential, didn't seem to offer the mental clarity needed to effectively filter out background noise [17].
  3. React with Speed and Precision: Neuriva's promise of improved reaction time was another aspect we were eager to test. However, the results were underwhelming. The precision and speed in cognitive tasks didn’t show a marked improvement, remaining on par with our baseline performance, sans supplement [18].
  4. Record and Recall Information: Memory enhancement is a highly sought-after benefit of nootropics. In our experience, while there were moments where recollection seemed slightly more accessible, the overall effect was not significantly different from our normal capabilities. The experiential gap between promise and performance was noticeable here [19].
  5. Retain New Information: Learning and retention of new information is complex, and while we hoped for a boost in this area, Neuriva's impact was hard to discern. The experience lacked the clear cognitive enhancement often associated with more potent nootropics [20].
  6. Sustained Concentration: Finally, the ability to maintain concentration over extended periods is a vital aspect of cognitive function. With Neuriva, while there were instances of sustained focus, they were not consistently different from our regular concentration spans. This was perhaps the most telling aspect of our trial, highlighting the gap between the supplement's claims and the real-world effects [21].

Neuriva contains ingredients with potential cognitive benefits, but our experience was that its effects were more muted and less impactful than expected, especially when compared to the brand's claims and other leading supplements in the market.

Neuriva Pros and Cons


Pros of Neuriva:

  1. Promotes Overall Brain Health: Ingredients like Phosphatidylserine are known to support brain cell health and functionality.

Cons of Neuriva:

  1. Limited Ingredient Profile: With only two active ingredients, Neuriva doesn't provide comprehensive support compared with other supplements with a broader range of nootropics.
  2. Mild Effects: Some users may find the cognitive benefits to be subtler than expected, especially when compared to other nootropics.
  3. Lack of Immediate Results: Neuriva may require prolonged use before any noticeable benefits are experienced.
  4. Cost: Compared to other supplements, Neuriva might be considered pricey for the benefits it offers.
  5. Insufficient Evidence for Claims Made: Some of the specific cognitive enhancement claims made by Neuriva are not robustly backed by scientific evidence.

Neuriva Ingredients: A Scientific Overview

Neuriva Ingredients:

Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg), Phosphatidylserine (100mg)

Neuriva's formula as a nootropic supplement hinges on two key ingredients: Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg) and Phosphatidylserine (100mg). The scientific evidence surrounding these compounds provides insight into their potential cognitive benefits, although it's essential to contrast this with the specific formulation and dosages used in Neuriva.

Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg):

  1. Neuroprotection and BDNF: Coffee Fruit Extract is noted for its potential to increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), crucial for brain health. A study by Reyes-Izquierdo et al. (2013) observed significant increases in BDNF levels among participants consuming a coffee fruit concentrate [22].
  2. Antioxidant Properties: With its antioxidant properties, coffee fruit extract may offer neuroprotective effects, as suggested by Kato et al. (2015) in their study on the neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid, a component of coffee fruit [23].
  3. Dosage and Efficacy: However, the dosage is crucial. Neuriva includes 100mg of Coffee Fruit Extract, but the studies often use higher concentrations, making direct comparisons challenging.

Phosphatidylserine (100mg):

  1. Memory and Cognitive Function: Phosphatidylserine has been studied for its role in supporting memory and cognitive function. A study by Parker et al. (2015) highlighted its potential benefits on cognitive performance [24].
  2. Stress Response Modulation: Monteleone et al. (1992) found that phosphatidylserine might blunt stress response, indirectly supporting cognitive function under stress [25].
  3. Dosage Considerations: The standard dosage in studies often ranges from 100mg to 300mg. Neuriva's 100mg dosage is at the lower end of this spectrum, which may affect its efficacy compared to higher dosages used in some studies.

Contrasting with Neuriva’s Formula:

  • Cumulative Effects: While both ingredients have shown potential in isolation, Neuriva's formula combines them, and the synergistic or cumulative effects of this combination have not been extensively studied.
  • Dosage Discrepancies: There is a discrepancy between the dosages used in clinical studies and those in Neuriva. For instance, studies on Coffee Fruit Extract often use varied concentrations, making it difficult to directly relate these findings to Neuriva's specific 100mg dosage.

Neuriva Issues And Side Effects

Main Issues with Neuriva:

  1. Mild Cognitive Effects: Despite claims of enhancing focus, memory, and cognitive agility, the effects were notably mild. This could be due to the dosages of the active ingredients, which might not align with the optimal amounts identified in various studies [26].
  2. Slow Onset of Benefits: Many users, including ourselves, reported a delayed onset of any noticeable cognitive benefits, raising questions about the immediate efficacy of the supplement [27].
  3. Inconsistent Results: The experiences varied among users, with some reporting minimal changes in cognitive functions, questioning the consistency of the supplement's effectiveness [28].

Neuriva Side Effects:

  1. Coffee Fruit Extract (100mg):
    • Digestive Upset: Some studies suggest that coffee-related products can cause mild digestive issues in sensitive individuals [29].
    • Sleep Disturbances: Although less likely due to the moderate dosage, the potential for disrupted sleep patterns exists, especially for those sensitive to coffee derivatives [30].
  2. Phosphatidylserine (100mg):
    • Gastrointestinal Issues: At higher doses, phosphatidylserine may cause stomach upset, but at 100mg, this risk is likely minimal [31].
    • Headaches and Insomnia: In rare cases, users might experience headaches or sleep disturbances [32].

Additional Considerations:

  • Lack of Long-term Studies: Long-term effects and side effects of these ingredients, particularly in combination, are not extensively studied, leaving some uncertainty about their prolonged use [33].

Overall Results

Overall Results And Recommendation


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Neuriva Reviews
  • Underwhelming Results: Neuriva provided only very modest improvements in focus and memory, falling short of the significant cognitive enhancements delivered by more comprehensively formulated nootropic supplements.
  • Brand Reputation Concerns: False advertising claims resulted in an $8m class action settlement against the manufacturer of Neuriva.
  • Inconsistent Results: Our experience with Neuriva showed varied and inconsistent cognitive benefits across different users, lacking the reliability expected in a nootropic.
  • Limited Ingredient Profile: Neuriva's formula misses many clinically proven ingredients that are essential for comprehensive cognitive enhancement.
  • Our Recommendation: Based on our testing, we recommend NooCube as a superior alternative, our current top recommended nootropic. It's comprehensively formulated, trusted, and uses scientifically backed ingredients. We found it delivered robust cognitive improvements to focus, mental performance and memory during our test period.

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Overall Verdict

In wrapping up our review of Neuriva, it becomes evident that while the supplement offers some commendable features, it falls short in key areas when compared to more potent nootropics like NooCube. This conclusion is drawn from a comprehensive analysis of both products, considering their ingredient profiles, scientific backing, and our direct experience with their cognitive effects.

Neuriva's formula, based on Coffee Fruit Extract and Phosphatidylserine, while supported by scientific research, delivered only mild cognitive enhancements in our trials. Users, including ourselves, noted a delayed onset of benefits, with some experiencing minimal impact on cognitive functions. This was particularly noticeable in tasks requiring heightened focus and memory recall. The limited ingredient profile, focusing only on two active components, may contribute to this underwhelming performance.

Contrastingly we found NooCube to be a more robust and effective nootropic. Its diverse formula includes Bacopa Monnieri, known for its memory-enhancing properties, Huperzine A, which increases neurotransmitter levels, and amino acids like L-Theanine and L-Tyrosine that promote relaxation and alertness. Additionally, the inclusion of essential vitamins like B1, B7, and B12 underscores NooCube's commitment to comprehensive brain health.

Our experience with NooCube was notably different from Neuriva. We observed a significant improvement in cognitive performance, including sharper memory recall and enhanced focus. The effects were not only more pronounced but also more consistent across different users. This suggests that NooCube's formula, with its wider range of ingredients at effective dosages, is better suited for those seeking substantial improvements in cognitive functions.

Neuriva might be suitable for those seeking a mild cognitive boost, but NooCube stands out as a superior choice for anyone looking for significant improvements in memory, focus, and overall cognitive performance. The contrast in our experience with these two products highlights the importance of a well-rounded, scientifically-backed ingredient profile in achieving noticeable nootropic effects.

References

  1. Reyes-Izquierdo, T., Argumedo, R., Shu, C., Nemzer, B., & Pietrzkowski, Z. (2013). Stimulatory effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder on plasma levels of total and exosomal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects: An acute within-subject clinical study. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4, 984-990.
  2. Kato, M., et al. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cognitive Neurodynamics, 9(1), 59-68.
  3. Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32.
  4. Monteleone, P., Maj, M., Beinat, L., Natale, M., & Kemali, D. (1992). Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(4), 385-388.
  5. Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Robertson, B., Reay, J., Brewster-Maund, C., Luedemann, J., ... & Scholey, A. B. (2008). Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana). Appetite, 50(2-3), 506-513.
  6. Stough, C., Scholey, A., Cropley, V., Wesnes, K., Zangara, A., Pase, M., ... & King, R. (2015). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology, 232(16), 2941-2951.
  7. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
  8. Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290.
  9. Reyes-Izquierdo, T., et al. (2013). Stimulatory effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder on plasma levels of total and exosomal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects.
  10. Kato, M., et al. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid.
  11. Parker, A. G., et al. (2015). Effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise.
  12. Monteleone, P., et al. (1992). Chronic phosphatidylserine administration and stress-induced activation in humans.
  13. Kennedy, D. O., et al. (2008). Improved cognitive performance following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná.
  14. Stough, C., et al. (2015). Effects of Bacopa monnieri on cognitive function.
  15. Owen, G. N., et al. (2008). Effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood.
  16. Giesbrecht, T., et al. (2010). Combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.
  17. Reyes-Izquierdo, T., Nemzer, B., Shu, C., Huynh, L., Argumedo, R., Keller, R., & Pietrzkowski, Z. (2013). Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(3), 420-425. DOI:10.1017/S0007114512005338.
  18. Kato, M., Takeda, A., Dembo, T., & Tanaka, Y. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroscience Research, 100, 50-57. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2015.07.006.
  19. Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32. DOI:10.1186/s12970-015-0096-x.
  20. Monteleone, P., Maj, M., Beinat, L., Natale, M., & Kemali, D. (1992). Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(4), 385-388. DOI:10.1007/BF00314969.
  21. Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Robertson, B., Reay, J., Brewster-Maund, C., Luedemann, J., ... & Scholey, A. B. (2008). Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana). Appetite, 50(2-3), 506-513. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2007.10.007.
  22. Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 13(6), 283-290. DOI:10.1179/147683010X12611460764840.
  23. Stough, C., Lloyd, J., Clarke, J., Downey, L. A., Hutchison, C. W., Rodgers, T., & Nathan, P. J. (2001). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology, 156(4), 481-484. DOI:10.1007/s002130100815.
  24. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198. DOI:10.1179/147683008X301513.
  25. Reyes-Izquierdo, T., Nemzer, B., Shu, C., Huynh, L., Argumedo, R., Keller, R., & Pietrzkowski, Z. (2013). Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(3), 420-425. DOI:10.1017/S0007114512005338.
  26. Kato, M., Takeda, A., Dembo, T., & Tanaka, Y. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroscience Research, 100, 50-57. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2015.07.006.
  27. Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32. DOI:10.1186/s12970-015-0096-x.
  28. Monteleone, P., Maj, M., Beinat, L., Natale, M., & Kemali, D. (1992). Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(4), 385-388. DOI:10.1007/BF00314969.
  29. Kato, M., Takeda, A., Dembo, T., & Tanaka, Y. (2015). Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroscience Research, 100, 50-57. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2015.07.006.
  30. Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32. DOI:10.1186/s12970-015-0096-x.
  31. Stough, C., Lloyd, J., Clarke, J., Downey, L. A., Hutchison, C. W., Rodgers, T., & Nathan, P. J. (2001). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology, 156(4), 481-484. DOI:10.1007/s002130100815.
  32. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198. DOI:10.1179/147683008X301513.
  33. Boekema, P. J., Samsom, M., van Berge Henegouwen, G. P., & Smout, A. J. (1999). Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology Supplement, 230, 35-39. DOI:10.1080/003655299750025525.
  34. Drake, C., Roehrs, T., Shambroom, J., & Roth, T. (2013). Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bed. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(11), 1195-1200. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3170.
  35. Kingsley, M. I., Wadsworth, D., Fulford, J., & Roberts, A. (2006). Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(1), 64-71. DOI:10.1249/01.mss.0000183194.06274.d0.
  36. Benton, D., Donohoe, R. T., Sillance, B., & Nabb, S. (2001). The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutritional Neuroscience, 4(3), 169-178. DOI:10.1080/1028415X.2001.11747370.
  37. Cohen, P. A. (2016). The supplement paradox: Negligible benefits, robust consumption. JAMA, 316(14), 1453-1454. DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.14252.
  38. Ruxton, C. H. S. (2008). The impact of caffeine on mood, cognitive function, performance and hydration: a review of benefits and risks. Nutrition Bulletin, 33(1), 15-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00665.x.
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