16th October 2023
Psychotherapy is defined as any form of treatment for a psychological or emotional disorder, in which a trained person establishes a relationship with one or several patients for the purpose of modifying or removing existing symptoms and promoting personality growth. Psychotherapy evolved from its origins in spiritual healing. Psychotherapy is practiced by psychologists and psychiatrists, but also may be, or is being, used by social workers in some settings, members of the treatment team which may consist of a psychiatrist, psychologist, and social worker. Others may also be involved such as a special eduation teacher and parent liason, in an educational setting.
Some common types of psychotherapy are:
IP can be effective for some in understanding themselves, as well as in organzing one's thoughts. It can also help some to unburden themselves of the past. Extended periods of Interpersonal therapy or other types of therapy may not necessary for everyone, but for many it is helpful.
Adolescents especially seem to benefit from IP, as it is supportive, and helps them develop a plan for recovery, many adolecents who are suicidal make improvement with IP alone. An educational psychologist is qualified for this type of therapy, and most public schools have access to an educational psychologist. Other types of psychologists can also be effectively skilled in IP.
An effective therapist or psychologist will skillfully use questions to draw out the client, and try to guide his thoughts in practical and positive ways.
Pharmaceutical treatment without some form of therapy is both impractical and dangerous for both adolecents and adults.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a common form of psychology that endeavors to help clients with mood disorders or mental health difficutlties or disorders to change or correct negative or destructive thought patterns and behaviors and lead the client to more realistic and positive thought patterns.
It is one of the most effective forms of therapy that one can pursue, in that it endeavors to both change the thinking that might be leading to mental health disorders, as well as address behavioral patterns that may have developed which have been leading to such thought patterns. It is one of the few branches of psychology which is most conducive towards addressing lifestyle changes in addition to helping a client to develop positive thought patterns.
Psychoeducation: basically means teaching people about the illness and its treatment, as well as teaching clients how to recognize signs and symptoms of relapse.
Family therapy involves the entire family in the treatment plan. No individual is a single entity, an "island," as the expression goes. When the family is involved in the treatment plan and therapy, it has been found that the success ratio is much more likely to be positive. Family therapy, then is of value in dealing with a broad range of mental health disorders. If, for example, a wife is depressed, it is very possible that there some aspect of the husbands life or habits that might be having an impact on her emotions. The same can be said for a child or teen.
Group therapy involves discussions in a small group setting which are directed or moderated by a professional psychologist, therapist of psychiatrist. For some it is of value to see that there are others who share common problems and can help to reduce self-stigma, and to find support, as well as to share ideas in coping. A support group is a little different, as it consists of groups who support each other in a non-professional context rather than necessarily including the moderation of a "p-doctor".
While some may benefit from or find support in group therapy, others may find it onerous or uncomfortable, so it is a matter of personal preference whether to include group therapy in one's treatment plan.
Art Therapy is a real branch of psychology which uses art as a professional therapy to help clients, both adults and children, to express themselves and find emotional healing and balance. Art therapists are board certified, therefore it is not considered to be an "alternative therapy," rather it is a fully accredited professional therapy and recommended option if one is seeking professional assistance. Art can be used in self-help and is can be for many, a natural mood stabilizer and healer for the mind. However, in the context of this discussion it is mentioned as a professional therapy. It can be and is used in conjunction with Interpersonal Therapy.
The New Jersey Art Therapy Association describes art therapy as being, the therapeutic use of art making, within a professional relationship, by people who experience illness, trauma, or challenges in living, and by people who seek personal development. Through creating art and reflecting on the art products and processes, people can increase awareness of self and others, cope with symptoms, stress, and traumatic experiences; enhance cognitive abilities; reduce anxiety; improve social skills; aid reality orientation; increase self-esteem; and enjoy the life-affirming pleasures of making art.
Interpersonal along with social rhythm therapy: involves an effort to improve interpersonal relationships and in the case of social rhythm therapy to establish daily routines. Establishing daily routines can especially be helpful for those with bi-polar disorder, as it helps establish sleep patterns and a planned or structured routine helps protect against manic episodes. This can be true also for those with ADHD, OCD and other disorders.
Psychiatry is described as the branch of the medical profession that is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of metal disorders. The term psychiatry is derived from two Greek words meaning "mind healing". Until the 18th century, mental illness of disorder was most often seen as demonic possession, but it gradually came to be considered as a sickness requiring treatment. By the 19th century, research, classification, and treatment of disorders had gained momentum. Psychotherapy evolved from its origins in spiritual healing.
In modern practice, the branch of psychiatry which is most often employed is that based on the medical model. The medical model refers to the method whereby psychiatric disorders are labeled, and in the majority of cases, psychotropic drugs are then prescribed.
The medical model of interpreting mental health disorders has been proven to be woefully inadequate. Yet, it is still the most widely used model in mental health, partly because of its simplicity and convenience.Other models of mental health such as Uri Bronfenbreener's, Bioecological model are much more complete in their description of mental health disorders.
In the United States, only psychiatrists, medical doctors, pediatricians can prescribe psychotropic drugs. Psychologists are not lisenced to prescribed medications.
While there are other types of psychiatrists, such as those in research or who deal spefically with children's issues, for the vast majority of the public, the psychiatrist has become a medical doctor who is chiefly concerned with prescribing medications, and where various forms of therapy, usually Interpersonal Therapy, and Group Therapy, are used as a secondary consideration. At times, other forms of therapy are not used at all by some psychiatrists, or in very shallow way.
Psychoanalysis is a highly influential method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as "depth psychology". The psychoanalytic movement originated in the meticulous clinical observations and formulations of the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, who coined the term. Free association which involves the client talking about whatever comes to his or her mind, is one method of therapy in psychoanalysis. From Freud's experiece as a psychiatrist, he found that most cases of anxiety and neuroses stemmed from unresolved conflicts that were a result sexual experiences when young. Therefore, his method and theory did give emphasis to this aspect of human psychology.
Freud developed the concepts of the id, ego and superego. Psychoanalysis developed the concepts of unresolved conflicts in the subconscious, that needed to come out and be resolved. Dream analysisis another aspect of psychoanalysis that Freud developed, having written a book on interpreting dreams. This might still be an aspect of psychoanalysis in modern practice.
Psychoanalysis typically requires years of therapy, whereas other therapies such as congnitive behavioral therapy, might find resolution within a period of weeks of months. Psychoanalysis is not the most dominant branch of psychiatry but it is still commonly practiced.
Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology. About 34 percent of psychologists are self-employed.
In 2006 there were 152,000 clinical, counseling or school psychologists in the United States.
Clinical psychologists, who constitute the largest specialty, work most often in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally distressed clients adjust to life and may assist medical and surgical patients in dealing with illnesses or injuries. Some clinical psychologists work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, or neurological conditions. Others help people deal with personal crisis, such as divorce or the death of a loved one.